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1. Is the performance of PAVMAX affected when mixed with any other organic material, e.g., CaO or CaCO3?

PAVMAX works well with all organic soils. PAVMAX will increase the bonding of the fines (-200 mesh) and allow greater moisture penetration to facilitate compaction.
PAVMAX has been successfully used in roads containing limestone (CaO). Calcite (CaO3), a fine grain limestone or soft earthy clay, also reacts positively with PAVMAX. However, the use of clays should be minimized in road building, usually less than 30% (-200 mesh).

2. Over time will PAVMAX increase its bonding strength?

PAVMAX treated soils (for roads and ponds) achieve their greatest strength at the time of compaction and immediate subsequent curing (72 hours curing time). Bonding of the soil particles takes place in the presence of moisture and compactive force. This condition will last as long as the material resists external forces. Heavy wheel loads, water, freeze-thaw cycles ultimately have their effect on all roads. PAVMAX treated roads will resist these forces due to the bonded, high density of the road material. The PAVMAX treated road will resist the detrimental effects of erosion and mechanical forces.

3. How about tensile strength- Will the road come out with cracks or become fragile?

PAVMAX Cracking occurs as a result of 2 factors. (1) If the road material contains a high percent of expansive clays having a high shrink-swell factor, after the road is completed and dries out some cracking will appear. This condition reduces the effectiveness of the road stability. However, these roads still perform very well with a slightly reduced service life. (2) A soft sub-base (expansive clays) may not support the treated base under heavy wheel loads. The bearing capacity of the road is insufficient. This can be corrected by increasing the thickness of the road base.
When the clay fines (-200 mesh) exceed 25% or are highly expansive, some surface cracking may occur. Generally, the cracks are superficial, often filling in with road particles during normal traffic use. Generally this condition is referred to as “Alligator Cracking” and does not significantly affect the stability of the road base.
Rain or other moisture will moderately swell the clay fines and the cracks will close. If the clay material is highly expansive, then the percentage of these fines should be kept low to reduce the amount of cracking. Eaglefinger Enterprises’ proprietary additives are added to the specific clays to change the shrink/swell characteristics and greatly reduce cracking.
Reflective cracks should not migrate upward through the asphalt unless the clay fines are in the upper range and site conditions see radical sub-surface ground moisture variations. Proper drainage will reduce ground moisture and keep cracking to a minimum.

4 . After compaction, what is the ratio of expansion?

PAVMAX After compaction, the expansion-contraction ratio will be dependent upon the soil type (percentage of expansive clays) as well as the gradation range (distribution of particle sizes). Well-graded soils (ranging from –200 mesh to 1 inch) are ideal for road building. The -200 mesh fines should be approximately 20%. If the frost level extends below the level of the road base, some heaving may occur. However, in the spring, the road should settle back to its original elevation without severe damage. Proper road construction including shoulder drainage will

5. Will extreme weather (hot or cold) affect the road stability?

PAVMAX Hot weather will not affect a PAVMAX treated road. Other than the effects mentioned in question (4),Cold weather will not affect a PAVMAX treated road.

6. When the road material contains more than 20%-30% clay, will the road surface become too slippery and lose traction?

Roads constructed with material containing a high level of clay will exhibit slippery surfaces when wet. It is necessary to use as much aggregate as possible not only to increase the overall strength of the road, but also to increase traction in wet conditions.
In many applications a surface treatment is applied as part of the overall design. This provides a wearing surface with traction, moisture protection and greater overall strength. Cost and availability of material are the primary factors affecting the type of surface treatment, if any.
PAVMAX works well with soils that have clay content passing through a 200-mesh screen between 18%-30%. This range of fines has been indicated as an acceptable range for road building material.
Most counties that use PAVMAX experience a 25%-50% reduction in road maintenance on roads that have been treated with PAVMAX. In the state of Nevada, many PAVMAX treated roads have been is use for as long as 14 years with no significant maintenance.

7. How long will the road last when PAVMAX is applied?

PAVMAX treated roads have been is use for over 14 years. The longevity of the road is a function of several factors:
· Climatic conditions such as temperature ranges and rainfall.
· Type soils used in construction.
· Road design – crowning, drainage and other engineered parameters.
· Type of vehicular traffic, speed and degree of usage.
· Wearing surface applied (if any).
General maintenance – frequency and quality.
We have seen PAVMAX treated roads retain their integrity over longer periods than previously experienced by road departments. For example, a road in Idaho, USA, has been in continual use for over 12 years with very little maintenance. Other geographic areas have reported substantial reductions in road maintenance by over 50%. PAVMAX treated road bases last longer.

8. Is compaction required when using PAVMAX?

PAVMAX is used when moisture is applied to soil for compaction. Stability or stabilization occurs when soil particles are in close contact. Even when used in pond applications, the downward force of the water assists in compaction.
Applying PAVMAX to soil without compaction will not affect a change in erosion. The soil’s ability to resist erosion is a function of the mineral makeup of the soil and compaction (or density).

9. Will PAVMAX affect plant life if there is any contact?

PAVMAX is not harmful to plant life in a full range of applications, i.e. road building, pond applications, etc